Lakota Oyate kin Wounspe Tantanhan un Tokata Etkiya Igloapi
Rebuilding the Lakota Nation through Education
Woksape Tipi is the foundation of resources and connection that empowers the rebuilding of the Lakota Nation through education.
Woksape Tipi promotes, supports, and serves the students, staff, and faculty of Oglala Lakota College and community members of the Pine Ridge Reservation; Woksape Tipi cultivates and encourages use of the Lakota language, critical thinking skills, and lifelong learning among all Lakota people.
Our Library Program Provides:
Information literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to
all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. It
enables learners to master content and extend their investigations, become
more self-directed, and assume greater control over their own learning.
Information Literacy Defined
Information literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to “recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate,and use effectively the needed information.
Information literacy also is increasingly important in the contemporary environment of rapid technological change and proliferating information resources. Because of the escalating complexity of this environment, individuals are faced with diverse, abundant information choices—in their academic studies, in the workplace, and in their personal lives.
Information is available through libraries, community resources, special interest organizations, media and the Internet—and increasingly, information comes to individuals in unfiltered formats, raising questions about its authenticity, validity, and reliability.
In addition, information is available through multiple media, including graphical, aural, and textual, and these pose new challenges for individuals in evaluating and understanding it. The uncertain quality and expanding quantity of information pose large challenges for society. The sheer abundance of information will not in itself create a more informed citizenry without a complementary cluster of abilities necessary to use information effectively.
An information literate individual is able to:
1. Determine the extent of information needed
2. Access the needed information effectively and efficiently
3. Evaluate information and its sources critically
4. Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base
5. Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose
6. Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the
use of information, access and use information ethically and
Use of the Standards
Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education provides a framework for assessing the information literate individual. It also
extends the work of the American Association of School Librarians Task Force on Information Literacy Standards, thereby providing higher education an opportunity to articulate its information literacy competencies with those of K-12 so that a continuum of expectations develops for students at all levels. The competencies presented here outline the process by which faculty, librarians and others pinpoint specific indicators that identify a student as information literate.
The information literate student determines the nature and extent of the
1. The information literate student defines and articulates the need for information.
a. Confers with instructors and participates in class discussions, peer
workgroups, and electronic discussions to identify a research topic,
or other information need;
b. Develops a thesis statement and formulates questions based on theinformation need;
c. Explores general information sources to increase familiarity with the topic;
d. Defines or modifies the information need to achieve a manageable focus;
e. Identifies key concepts and terms that describe the information need;
f. Recognizes that existing information can be combined with original
thought, experimentation, and/or analysis to produce new information.
2. The information literate student identifies a variety of types and formats of potential sources for information.
a. Knows how information is formally and informally produced,
organized, and disseminated;
b. Recognizes that knowledge can be organized into disciplines that
influence the way information is accessed;
c. Identifies the value and differences of potential resources in a variety
of formats (e.g., multimedia, database, website, data set, audio/
d. Identifies the purpose and audience of potential resources (e.g.,
popular vs. scholarly, current vs. historical);
e. Differentiates between primary and secondary sources, recognizing
how their use and importance vary with each discipline;
f. Realizes that information may need to be constructed with raw
data from primary sources.
3. The information literate student considers the costs and benefits of acquiring the needed information.
a. Determines the availability of needed information and makes decisions
on broadening the information seeking process beyond local
resources (e.g., interlibrary loan; using resources at other locations;
obtaining images, videos, text, or sound);
b. Considers the feasibility of acquiring a new language or skill (e.g.,
foreign or discipline-based) in order to gather needed information
and to understand its context;
c. Defines a realistic overall plan and timeline to acquire the needed
4. The information literate student reevaluates the nature and extent of the information need.
a. Reviews the initial information need to clarify, revise, or refine the
b. Describes criteria used to make information decisions and choices
The information literate student accesses needed information effectively
1. The information literate student selects the most appropriate investigative methods
or information retrieval systems for accessing the needed information.
a. Identifies appropriate investigative methods (e.g., laboratory experiment,
b. Investigates benefits and applicability of various investigative methods;
c. Investigates the scope, content, and organization of information
d. Selects efficient and effective approaches for accessing the information
needed from the investigative method or information retrieval system.
2. The information literate student constructs and implements effectively designed search strategies.
a. Develops a research plan appropriate to the investigative method;
b. Identifies keywords, synonyms and related terms for the information
c. Selects controlled vocabulary specific to the discipline or information
d. Constructs a search strategy using appropriate commands for the
information retrieval system selected (e.g., Boolean operators, truncation,
and proximity for search engines; internal organizers such as indexes for books);
e. Implements the search strategy in various information retrieval
systems using different user interfaces and search engines, with different
command languages, protocols, and search parameters;
f. Implements the search using investigative protocols appropriate to
3. The information literate student retrieves information online or in person using a variety of methods.
a. Uses various search systems to retrieve information in a variety of formats;
b. Uses various classification schemes and other systems (e.g., call
number systems or indexes) to locate information resources within
the library or to identify specific sites for physical exploration;
c. Uses specialized online or in person services available at the institution
to retrieve information needed (e.g., interlibrary loan/document
delivery, professional associations, institutional research offices,
community resources, experts and practitioners);
d. Uses surveys, letters, interviews, and other forms of inquiry to
retrieve primary information.
4. The information literate student refines the search strategy if necessary.
a. Assesses the quantity, quality, and relevance of the search results
to determine whether alternative information retrieval systems or
investigative methods should be utilized;
b. Identifies gaps in the information retrieved and determines if the
search strategy should be revised;
c. Repeats the search using the revised strategy as necessary.
5. The information literate student extracts, records, and manages the information and its sources.
a. Selects among various technologies the most appropriate one for the
task of extracting the needed information (e.g., copy/paste software
functions, photocopier, scanner, audio/visual equipment, or exploratory
b. Creates a system for organizing the information;
c. Differentiates between the types of sources cited and understands the
elements and correct syntax of a citation for a wide range of resources;
d. Records all pertinent citation information for future reference;
e. Uses various technologies to manage the information selected and
The information literate student evaluates information and its sources
critically and incorporates selected information into his or her knowledge
base and value system.
1. The information literate student summarizes the main ideas to be extracted
from the information gathered.
a. Reads the text and selects main ideas;
b. Restates textual concepts in his/her own words and selects data accurately;
c. Identifies verbatim material that can be then appropriately quoted.
2. The information literate student articulates and applies initial criteria
for evaluating both the information and its sources.
a. Examines and compares information from various sources in order
to evaluate reliability, validity, accuracy, authority, timeliness, and point of view or bias;
b. Analyzes the structure and logic of supporting arguments or methods;
c. Recognizes prejudice, deception, or manipulation;
d. Recognizes the cultural, physical, or other context within which the
information was created and understands the impact of context on
interpreting the information.
3. The information literate student synthesizes main ideas to construct
a. Recognizes interrelationships among concepts and combines them
into potentially useful primary statements with supporting evidence;
b. Extends initial synthesis, when possible, at a higher level of abstraction
to construct new hypotheses that may require additional
c. Utilizes computer and other technologies (e.g. spreadsheets, databases,
multimedia, and audio or visual equipment) for studying the
interaction of ideas and other phenomena.
4. The information literate student compares new knowledge with prior
knowledge to determine the value added, contradictions, or other
unique characteristics of the information.
a. Determines whether information satisfies the research or other
b. Uses consciously selected criteria to determine whether the information
contradicts or verifies information used from other sources;
c. Draws conclusions based upon information gathered;
d. Tests theories with discipline-appropriate techniques (e.g., simulators, experiments);
e. Determines probable accuracy by questioning the source of the data,
the limitations of the information gathering tools or strategies, and
the reasonableness of the conclusions;
f. Integrates new information with previous information or knowledge;
g. Selects information that provides evidence for the topic.
5. The information literate student determines whether the new knowledge
has an impact on the individual’s value system and takes steps to reconcile differences.
a. Investigates differing viewpoints encountered in the literature;
b. Determines whether to incorporate or reject viewpoints encountered.
6. The information literate student validates understanding and interpretation
of the information through discourse with other individuals,
subject-area experts, and/or practitioners.
a. Participates in classroom and other discussions;
b. Participates in class-sponsored electronic communication forums
designed to encourage discourse on the topic (e.g., e-mail, bulletin
boards, chat rooms);
c. Seeks expert opinion through a variety of mechanisms (e.g., interviews,
7. The information literate student determines whether the initial query
should be revised.
a. Determines if original information need has been satisfied or if additional
information is needed;
b. Reviews search strategy and incorporates additional concepts as
c. Reviews information retrieval sources used and expands to include
others as needed.
The information literate student, individually or as a member of a group,
uses information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose.
1. The information literate student applies new and prior information to the
planning and creation of a particular product or performance.
a. Organizes the content in a manner that supports the purposes and
format of the product or performance (e.g. outlines, drafts, storyboards);
b. Articulates knowledge and skills transferred from prior experiences
to planning and creating the product or performance;
c. Integrates the new and prior information, including quotations and
paraphrasings, in a manner that supports the purposes of the product or performance;
d. Manipulates digital text, images, and data, as needed, transferring
them from their original locations and formats to a new context.
2. The information literate student revises the development process for the
product or performance.
a. Maintains a journal or log of activities related to the information
seeking, evaluating, and communicating process;
b. Reflects on past successes, failures, and alternative strategies.
3. The information literate student communicates the product or performance effectively to others.
a. Chooses a communication medium and format that best supports
the purposes of the product or performance and the intended audience;
b. Uses a range of information technology applications in creating the
product or performance;
c. Incorporates principles of design and communication;
d. Communicates clearly and with a style that supports the purposes
of the intended audience.
The information literate student understands many of the economic, legal,
and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses
information ethically and legally.
1. The information literate student understands many of the ethical, legal and
socio-economic issues surrounding information and information technology.
a. Identifies and discusses issues related to privacy and security in
both the print and electronic environments;
b. Identifies and discusses issues related to free vs. fee-based access to information;
c. Identifies and discusses issues related to censorship and freedom of speech;
d. Demonstrates an understanding of intellectual property, copyright,
and fair use of copyrighted material.
2. The information literate student follows laws, regulations, institutional
policies, and etiquette related to the access and use of information resources.
a. Participates in electronic discussions following accepted practices (e.g. “Netiquette”);
b. Uses approved passwords and other forms of ID for access to information resources;
c. Complies with institutional policies on access to information resources;
d. Preserves the integrity of information resources, equipment, systems and facilities;
e. Legally obtains, stores, and disseminates text, data, images, or sounds;
f. Demonstrates an understanding of what constitutes plagiarism and
does not represent work attributable to others as his/her own;
g. Demonstrates an understanding of institutional policies related to
human subjects research.
3. The information literate student acknowledges the use of information
sources in communicating the product or performance.
a. Selects an appropriate documentation style and uses it consistently
to cite sources;
b. Posts permission granted notices, as needed, for copyrighted material
Information Literacy Competency Standards for Higher Education.
© ALA, 2000-16
Information Literacy Competency
Standards for Higher Education
Approved by the Board of Directors of the
Association of College and Research Libraries on January 18, 2000